Day 2 :
Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan
Time : 09:30-10:15
Hans-Uwe Dahms was born in Germany where he received his PhD and DSc degrees in Biology. He was invited to more than 80 countries worldwide for research and lecturing. He is currently a Professor at the Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology in Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan. His current research is concerned with environmental health issues affecting public health.
Xenobiotics are affecting the oceans. Among them are antibiotics (ABs) used worldwide to treat diseases and protect the health of humans, animals and plans alike. They are also incorporated into animal feed to improve growth rate and feed efficiency. As antibiotics are poorly absorbed in the gut, the majority is excreted unchanged in feces and urine. Given that land applications of sewage and its subsequent leaching to aquifers is often a common practice in many countries, there is a growing international concern about the potential impact of antibiotic residues on the environment. Frequent use of antibiotics has also raised concerns about increased antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. We here give the opportunity to update information available in the literature on the use, sales, exposure pathways, environmental occurrence, fate, effects and remediation of ABs in the aquatic environment. Only recently, more complex investigations of ABs were made to assess the environmental risks they may pose. Within the last decade an increasing number of studies covering antibiotic input, occurrence, fate and effects were published, but there is still a lack of understanding about antibiotics in the aquatic environment with respect to input sources and quantities, pathways, fate and effects on non-target organisms.
Xiamen University, China
Time : 10:15-11:00
Luo Ping Zhang has his expertise in marine environmental monitoring and integrated environmental quality assessment, strategic environmental assessment and environmental risk assessment, coastal and regional environmental planning and management.
So far, the most popular methods for ecosystem valuation are ecosystem service valuation (ESV), which is based on the utility of ecosystem to human beings rather than on the objective value of the ecosystem. After more than 10 years’ application, it has been found that all losses of ESV were about 10% of the benefits of human activities. The ecosystem intrinsic value (EIV) is defined as an objective value of ecosystem in the earlier studies that emerges from the existence, substance, energy, information, structures, functions and processes of ecosystem, but independent with man, man’s will and preferences. The valuating approach and methods for EIV were developed by using the methods of emergy analysis and eco-exergy analysis from the ecosystem properties, which represents the existent value and the externally working capacity (creative value) of ecosystem, respectively. The evaluating approach and methods of EIV were applied into Xiamen Bay and Pearl River Estuary, China. The results showed that the EIVs of both ecosystems were around USD 54 million km-2 that were irrespective with their socio-economical levels. It demonstrates that the EIVs are the objective value of the ecosystem and independent of human consciousness, will and preference. The total marine EIV in Xiamen Bay was nearly 30 times of ESV and 8.5 times of the GDP of Xiamen marine industry in 2010. EIV in unit area is more than 10 times of the average global ESV in estuaries, the highest marine ESV. It implies a potential undervaluation to ecosystem value by ESV concept and approach. Due to its under-valuating ecosystem, as a result, ESV may mislead decision-making process and results in that ecological degradation continues to accelerate. All of these show that EIV is an objective value of ecosystem, a more rational value can just conserve ecosystem by using it and support decision-making towards sustainability.
- Fisheries Oceanography | Marine Geology and GIS application | Marine Pollution | Oceans and Climate Change | Marine Data Management | Marine Refinery
Location: Courtyard Seoul Times Square
P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of RAS, Russia
ICMAM Project Directorate, India
Time : 11:20-11:50
D Mohan has expertise in Coastal & Marine Pollution, and Marine Ecotoxicology. His contributions in prescription of Seawater Quality Criteria for metals and pesticides have made recognition in the CPCB and under active consideration for evaluation and implementation.
This report details on significant achievements of Marine Pollution Monitoring Program outlining the problems of marine and coastal pollution in India with a long term data base generated and operated by the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India (GOI). This Program has been operational since 1991 and ICMAM Project Directorate, under the Ministry is the nodal agency, for co-ordination of the program for collection of oceanographic data on 25 pollution related parameters with the involvement of leading research institutions and universities along the coastal states of the country. The status of marine pollution in the country could be fairly understood and health of our seas has been assessed and areas of low, medium and high concentrations of pollutants have been identified and areas of high concentration of pollutants are being monitored intensively. The data collected have been evaluated and organized in the form of a data base. The data base is hosted by the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Service (INCOIS), Hyderabad. The data facilitated analysis of trends of chemical and biological parameters of the ocean and revealed that the regulations issued by the Central and State Governments. India has wide range of laws and regulations governing the environment. The enactment of The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and The Environment Protection Act, 1986 notified by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF & CC), Government of India to keep the coastal waters clean and free from pollution, they are classified based on the use and activities of the coast, hence the Primary Water Quality Criteria have been specified for various use classes to determine its suitability for a particular purpose. ICMAM Project Directorate has derived ‘Sea Water Quality Criteria’ for heavy metals and pesticides and they were prescribed for issue of amendment in the existing Gazette Notification of the MoEF & CC, GOI (1998). The Government of India has formulated a comprehensive Policy Statement for Abatement of Pollution, which envisages integration of environmental and economic aspects of development planning, River basin-wise surveys for Ganga and Yamuna action plans to improve water quality of rivers through implementation of pollution abatement schemes etc. Further, zoning atlas for location of the industries based on environmental considerations in various districts of the country has also been studied. Similarly, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification, 2006, which made environmental clearance mandatory for 29 categories of projects have been made. The government has prepared an action plan for treatment of waste waters that are being generated from the domestic and industrial sources.
University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
Time : 11:50-12:20
Ashani Arulananthan has completed her Bachelor of Science degree in Aquatic Resources Technology and Postgraduate degree in the Marine Biotechnology field with a research topic of coral reefs and its’ genetic diversity. Currently she is working as an Instructor at the Ocean University of Sri Lanka, Regional Centre in Jaffna.
Karainagar and Kayts are the two major islands amongst the nine islands of Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka. Karainagar Island is located in the north western region and Kayts in the south western region of the Jaffna Peninsula. The extent and condition of coral reefs are extremely different in these islands. In this preliminary study we recorded the mean percentage cover of living and non-living sessile benthic categories assessing the current status in both islands. Surveys were conducted in shallow inner reefs with depth of one to two-meter. Substrate categories were documented from randomly laid 100 m long Line Intercept Transects (LIT). There were Hard Corals (HC) 22%, Soft Corals (SC) 3%, Nutrient Indicator Algae (NIA) 29%, sponges (SP) 8%, Dead Coral covered with Algae (DCA) 23% and Rubble (RB) 3% at the Casuarina site in Karainagar Island while there were HC 16%, SC 2%, DCA 57% and RB 9% at the Allaipiddy site in Kayts Island. There is a significant difference in percentage covers between benthic categories (p<0.05) for both sites as well as there is a significant interaction between the reefs and benthic categories on interest in percentage cover (p<0.05). Corals of the Kayts Island were found to be severely affected since the coral mortality index value was 0.79 and the Karainagar reefs were little above the optimum health level of 0.33 as 0.44. The coral categories of the two islands were dominated by massive corals belong to the genera Favia and Favites followed by plating and encrusting acroporids. Caulerpa sp., Turbinaria sp. and Sargassum sp. are the main nutrient indicating algae in the Karainagar island reefs. Furthermore, anthropogenic disturbances were high in the Kayts Island mainly due to the dynamite fishing and use of illegal fishing nets while coral reefs of Karainagar were greatly affected by the unmanaged tourism. Thus, this study revealed the urgent need of conservational and management practices to protect the coral reefs at this region.
State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research-ECNU, China
Title: Sediment trapping in the Changjiang estuary: Observations in the north passage over a spring-neap tidal cycle
Time : 12:20-12:50
Ding Zhangliang is a postgraduate at East China Normal University. His major is estuary and coastal research. And he is studying for a doctor's degree.
Water current, salinity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were measured at three anchored boat sites along the North Passage (NP) of the Changjiang estuary over a spring-neap tidal cycle, in order to study sediment trapping and siltation in the estuary. Pronounced stratification was observed during the late flood tide and the following early ebb tide, along with an advancing and retreating salt wedge, whereas strong vertical mixing occurred during the late ebb when the effect of the salt wedge faded. Therefore, the SSC in the flood-ebb tidal cycle tended to be asymmetric. In the upper reach of the NP, the seaward advective near-bed sediment transport dominated the total near-bed sediment transport, whereas in the middle reach of the NP, the landward tidal pumping component dominated. Accordingly, a notable convergent near-bed residual sediment transport was generated near the middle reach. Because the convergence of residual sediment transport in the region of a salt wedge is generally recognized as sediment trapping, convergent near-bed residual sediment transport is the cause of the high sedimentation rate in the NP.
State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research-ECNU, China
Title: Bottom drag coefficient on the influence of the saltwater spilling over from the north branch in Changjiang Estuary in China
Time : 13:40-14:10
Hanghang Lyu is a Postgraduate student of East China Normal University, China. His major is Estuary and Coastal Research and currently pursuing Doctor's degree.
Usually, the bottom drag coefficient Cd is specified to match the law of the wall in the bottom logarithmic layer where the water is neutrally stratified in many 3-dimensional ocean models. However, current natural water depth is only 2~4 meters in the upper and middle reaches of the North Branch in Changjiang Estuary in China. There are many tidal flat in the channel and the tidal range up to about 4 m. In the ebb, many shoals will come out of the water. In this case, the vertical stratification has not much significance. So we transformed three-dimensional computational methods into two-dimensional using formula of Chézy-manning in North Branch. In this way, it can greatly enhance the calculation precision of saltwater spill over from the north branch.
National Scientific Centre of Marine Biology-Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Title: The role of marine plants in the restoration of the ecosystem of coral reefs after damage by natural influences
Time : 14:10-14:40
Eduard A Titlyanov, PhD is a Professor, an honored scientist of the Russian Federation. He is the author of more than 200 scientific papers and co-author of the books: 1. Ahnfeltia tobuchiensis: Biology, Ecology, Productivity (1993) [in Russian]; 2. Titlyanov E.A. Zooxanthellae of hermatypic corals: life strategy (1999) [in Russian]; 3. Marine plants of Asia-Pacific region countries, their use and cultivation (2012) [in Russian, descriptions of marine plants in English]; Marine plants of Trinity Bay and adjacent waters (Peter the Great Bay) (2013) [in Russian]; 4. Useful Marine Plants of the Asia-Pacific Region Countries (2016) [in Russian, descriptions of marine plants in English]; 5. Coral reef Marine Plants of Hainan Island (2017) [in English]. His current research deals with the study of the physiology, biochemistry and ecology of marine photosynthetic organisms. His more recent research has concentrated on floristic studies of the tropical and subtropical seas of the Pacific Ocean.
The coral reef ecosystem is a collection of diverse species that interact with each other and with the physical environment. The latitudinal distribution of coral reef ecosystems in the oceans is determined by the seawater temperature, which influences the reproduction and growth of hermatypic corals; the main component of the ecosystem. Benthic algae are one of the most important components of reef ecosystems. Their role in healthy coral reefs is defined as primary production of organic matter and its turnover, the construction of reefs, nitrogen fixation, Marine initial link of food chains, environment for marine animals and protection of reefs against deleterious effects from surf. Severe physical disturbances such as typhoons/hurricanes/cyclones and tsunamis cause extensive damages in coral colonies. Coral bleaching is often caused by unusually high sea temperatures combined with periods of slack wind, calm seas, high solar radiation, leads to reduced photosynthesis, a tissue growth, calcification and subsequently to the death of corals. The mass mortality of corals under the influence of severe physical disturbances leads to disruption of the homeostasis of the ecosystem and at their frequent repetition to the destruction of coral reefs. The coral reef restoration can last for decades. Recovery of a coral reef hampers or contributes to a variety of abiotic and biotic factors. Many abiotic and biotic factors hinder or contribute to the restoration of coral reefs. In the report we discuss the possible role of benthic algae in the process of restoring coral reefs damaged by severe physical disturbances and for the first time expressed the hypothesis of their positive role in this process. We suggest that this is mainly achieved through the colonization of newly formed substrates by marine algae, with the following characteristics: (1) Maintenance of high ecosystem productivity through settlement of highly productive morpho-functional algal forms, (2) Protection of coral reef basis and newly formed carbonate substrata (dead coral colonies) from erosion and continuation of carbonate reef base building, (3) Colonization of vacant substrates by algae enhances the biodiversity of an entire reef assemblage, (4) Symbiotic relations between algae and corals also promote homeostasis and coral reef recovery in damaged reef systems through transport of assimilates from endolithic symbiotic algae to coral tissue, which intensiﬁes during a bleaching episode or by coral digestion of own zooxanthellae that intensiﬁes under extreme conditions, (5) Release of secondary chemicals by encrusting calcareous algae (or their bacterial bioﬁlm) promoting planula settlement and growth on their surfaces, (6) Planulae and young colonies attached to calcareous algae at the base of algal turf are protected from predatory/grazing organisms and from desiccation and bleaching in the intertidal. Coral growth is enhanced by the accumulation of zooplankton and other organisms in algal turfs.
Pusan National University, South Korea
Time : 14:40-15:10
IL Kim is a Polymer Chemist, graduated from Chemical Engineering Department, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Engineering. He has worked for University of Ulsan and presently working in Pusan National University. He is also the Director of the Brain Korea 21 PLUS Center for Advanced Chemical Technology supported by the Ministry of Education and the Chairman of the Department of Chemical Engineering, Polymer Science and Engineering in PNU. He has published more than 350 SCI papers and obtained more than 20 awards for the science and technology success and has been Editorial Board Member of 9 international journals.
Recently, the preparation of polyols from vegetable oils has garnered tremendous interest. Structurally, vegetable oils consist of triglycerides of common unsaturated fatty acids. Owing to the higher reactivity of oxirane rings, the unsaturated aliphatic chains are functionalized through epoxidation by using performic or peracetic acid, which can be formed from their respective acids and hydrogen peroxide. In order to meet specific requirements, the ring-opening (RO) of epoxidized vegetable oils has been studied by employing a variety of nucleophiles, such as alcohols and amines, which produced polyols containing primary or secondary hydroxyl groups. During the RO reaction with alcohols in the presence of an acid or an alkaline catalyst, transesterification can occur and three products, monoglyceride (MG), diglyceride (DG) and glycerol, can be formed. A number of studies have investigated the transesterification of esters of non-fatty acids and alcohols to determine the values of parameters such as the rate of reaction, equilibrium constant and activation energy. However, few papers report the transesterification of vegetable oils and fatty esters with a variety of alcohols and catalysts. Thus we have studied the transesterification side-reaction in the RO of epoxidized vegetable oils when alcohol is employed as a nucleophilic reagent in the presence of a catalyst. To rapidly acquire polyols at low temperatures while limiting side products by transesterification, the effects of reaction time, temperature, catalyst type and catalyst amount are studied by chemical and physical methods. Results indicate that only diglycerides and monoglycerides are unexpected products owing to the absence of glycerol in crude polyol. Fluoroboric acid was the optimal catalyst, since this catalyst yielded polyols with a side product content of only ~2%. In addition, the RO of epoxidized vegetable oils reaches completion within 15 min after catalyst addition at a low temperature range of 40-60 °C.
Shruti Manish Joshi is pursuing her Bachelor of Science degree in Zoology from K.J. Somaiya College of Science and Commerce affiliated to Mumbai University in India. She has attended National Initiative on Undergraduate Science (NIUS) held by Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India along with numerous inter college programs and seminars.
Coral reefs are considered to be the rainforest of the sea and have about a quarter of known marine biodiversity around it. They also play an important role in purifying the oceans and protection of shorelines. However, they are highly sensitive to pH and temperature changes. Due to increase in sewage, oils and toxins and many more factors, the physical environment of the oceans is changing very rapidly and this has led to a massive loss of coral reefs in India which has the sixth largest atoll in the world, also a lot of species have become endangered and more of them fall in this category every year. We cannot be precise about how much and where, because of special difficulties of monitoring underwater. The reef condition is poor and declining in near shore waters and areas of high population density. Sedimentation and dredging are damaging near shore reefs, while the use of explosives and bottom nets in fishing are damaging offshore reefs at various sites. Also, global warming is increasing the acidity of the ocean. India being a developing country lacks the technology required to save the corals but has so far only managed to study them. A large number of the corals are still understudied. Although laws are sufficient in theory to protect the reefs in India, authorities have taken little effective action in implementing them. Hence sustainable development, which is being practiced at a smaller scale in areas which are accounted for in India, needs to be practiced on a larger scale.
Subhasis Sen is a retired Scientist of the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, India. He is an Earth Scientist and has conducted studies on various fundamental aspects of earth and planetary sciences, including original researches on fuel resources. Based on earth expansion theory of Hilgenberg (1933), he has developed a model of global tectonics termed ‘Unified Global Tectonics’ for explaining major global phenomena like, planetary expansion, evolution of oceans over the global surface, cause of earth’s expansion and various other features of global significance.
The author considers that the prevalent views on origin of ocean basins and ocean water are inconclusive and vague and cannot be justified by scientific principles. Both the concepts of plate tectonics and continental drift conceive that oceans are of great geological antiquity while Hilgenberg’s model (1933) of earth expansion endorses that initially the planet was considerably small and devoid of oceans. Based on Hilgenberg’s model of earth expansion, the author considers that since the primordial earth was devoid of oceans, at that stage the ocean-forming water must have been associated with the mantle, thereby turning that geosphere considerably fluid. Such semi-fluid mantle must have been pre-eminently suitable for planetary expansion, owing to swelling up in response to an external gravitational pull causing by an extra-terrestrial planetary body, probably the moon. The primordial earth was completely covered with a relatively thin granitic layer forming crust, which, due to swelling up of the mantle would be cracked forming a number of long and sinuous expansion cracks.Through these expansion cracks widespread disgorge of molten magma took place which spread on both sides of the cracks forming the floors of the oceans. With continued expansion, caused by gravitational attraction of the external planetary object the dimension of the oceans broadened while the expansion cracks turned in to mid-oceanic ridges.
Hittite University, Turkey
Title: Approaches aiming at providing sustainability in design of university campus electricity energy supply and distribution
Time : 16:30-17:00
Hasan Baylavli is currently working as a Research Assistant in Construction Technology and Building Audit Programs at Hittite University in Çorum, Turkey. He has completed his Associate degree program from Gazi University, Çorum Vocational School Construction Program, graduated from Pamukkale University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering and completed his Master’s degree in Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering Building Materials. His research interest includes self-compacting concretes, fiber-reinforced concretes and recycling and also in the fields of university campus planning, green campus and energy-efficiency in buildings.
Effect of energy failures may vary according to sectors; manufacturing, hospitals, polyclinic services, call centers, shopping markets. Point of view about energy failure is certainly different for all of the above. In university education, public services, scientific researches and applications, national and international educational, social, cultural and sportive activities, etc., are being performed. In Hittite University campus, energy infrastructure planning, apart from above services was considered that labs in which high priority scientific studies which require continuity and especially after establishment of medical faculty, health services and many others should also be taken into consideration. In campus electricity energy planning, common point for each unit is continuity. We handled electricity energy planning under three main headlines: Physical design, production supply and, distribution and support systems. For continuity, from this point of view, we defined the risks and our approaches for each of them. In energy supply trigeneration system was planned so that it will primarily operate in case of urban network failure risk. There are some different cases and smart rules for each case. There is also categorization of the loads priority and load disposal system is designed. In case the energy consumption of campus is more than what is produced by gas generator when gas generator is online, additional energy will be supplied from urban network. In case of urban network failure again diesel generators and load disposal automation will be online. To overcome failures that may be occurred, system project was designed with approaches aiming at maintaining continuity. The aim was to prevent failures with a percentage of 95% and to reduce the area of effect in the campus below a percentage of 5% and accordingly priority was given to continuity and quality of education and scientific activities.